Arts & culture

There are numerous sources of information on life as a LGBT(I) person in the different countries where Denmark are engaged in developmental partnerships: Magazines, references to book titles, film clips or references to these. And at LGBTnet.dk we have started to include these in our resources. Read about for example the newest issue of Qzine - African’s only magazine of LGBTI arts and culture. Find them in our extensive database of resources.

Q zine 10

South America

south america

In some of the countries on the Southern American & Caribbean Continent same-sex relations are illegal and LGBT persons face discrimination and violation of fundamental rights.

 As of November 2017 homosexual acts are illegal in 10 countries, mostly the Caribbean countries. The detailed list of countries includes Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Antigua and Barbuda, Jamaica, St Vincent and the Grenades, St Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, and Grenada. Note that these ten countries differ when it comes to illegality of realtionship between males, females, or both, as well as according to the number of documented arrests in the past 3 years.












 

 

Bolivia

The Constitution of Bolivia, implemented in February 2009, prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. The 2010 law against racism and all forms of discrimination includes sexual orientation and gender identity as prohibited bases for discrimination in access to public and private services and to establishments serving the public.

The constitution limits legally recognized marriage and common-law marriage to opposite-sex unions. On 17 July 2010, Vice President Álvaro García Linera said that the Government had no plans to legalize same-sex marriage.

The same year the Bolivian President Evo Morales made himself unlucky noticed when he stood on a podium at an international environmental conference hosted by Bolivia and implied that eating chicken injected with "female hormones" might cause deviations in men: http://ilga.org/bolivian-president-eating-estrogen-rich-chicken-makes-you-gay/

On April 2012, a member of the opposition coalition, the National Convergence, introduced a bill in the National Congress to legalize civil unions. The president of the Parliament's Human Rights Commission said that the bill will be discussed and consulted during this year.

According to a 2017 poll carried out by ILGA 60% of Bolivians agreed that gay, lesbian and bisexual people should enjoy the same rights as straight people, while 17% disagreed. Additionally, 64% agreed that they should be protected from workplace discrimination. 26% of Bolivians, however, said that people who are in same-sex relationships should be charged as criminals, while a plurality of 45% disagreed: http://ilga.org/what-we-do/ilga-riwi-global-attitudes-survey/

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: No

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: Yes

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

Igualdad LGBT: http://www.igualdadlgbt.org/

Metamorfosis Bolivia: https://www.facebook.com/pg/metamorfosisbolivia/about/?ref=page_internal

Observatorio de los derechos LGBT: http://www.observatoriolgbt.org.bo/

Igualdad LGBT- Camiri: https://www.facebook.com/Igualdad-LGBT-Camiri-716973328378319/?ref=br_rs

Casa de la Diversidad Bolivia: https://www.facebook.com/pg/CasaLGBTIbol/about/?ref=page_internal

Manodiversa: http://www.manodiversa.supersitio.net/

 

 

Brazil

The list of various LGBT rights in Brazil has expanded since the end  of the military dictatorship in 1985, and the creation of the new Constitution of Brazil of 1988. According to the Guinness World Records, the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade is the world's largest LGBT Pride celebration, with 4 million people in 2009. The South American country has 300 active LGBT organizations. LGBT people in Brazil have marriage rights available since May 2013. 

However, Brazil has been rated as one of the countries where the most gay people are killed. According to the report "Epidemic of Hate", published in 1996 by the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, at least 1,200 gays, lesbians and transsexuals were killed in Brazil alone in a decade. According to the Grupo Gay da Bahia (GGB), Brazil's largest and most active gay organization, a gay, lesbian or transvestite is brutally murdered every two days due to homophobia, with a total of 130 in one year alone. According to GGB's statistics, only 2% of these attacks are on lesbians, but "Love Sees No Borders" believes this number is grossly underestimated for two main reasons. First, a vast percentage of homophobia-related crimes go unreported. Even in the United States, most hate crimes are not reported. A large number of hate crimes in Brazil are committed by police officers, thus elevating the number of people unwilling to report a crime. Moreover, brutality against lesbians can often take the form of violent rape; if a victim comes forward, the charge will be rape, not a hate crime against a lesbian.

In September 2017, a federal judge in Brasília approved the use of conversion therapy by a psychologist to "cure" people of homosexuality, overruling a 1999 decision by the Federal Council of Psychology that forbade such treatment: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/brazil-gay-conversion-therapy-judge-approves-lgbt-rights-a7957161.html

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for homosexuals and heterosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: Yes

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: No

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

Grupo Gay da Bahia: http://www.ggb.org.br/ggb-ingles.html

Associação Brasileira de Gays, Lésbicas, Bissexuais, Travestis e Transexuais: https://www.abglt.org/

Publications

Report on the Human Rights Situation of Afro-Brazilian Trans WomenThe qualitative research for this report was conducted in 2012 in Brazil and it examines the struggles of a group of individuals who are deeply marginalized from diverse economic, cultural, and political contexts, and who often remain subject to violence, sexual abuse, and murder. In addition to providing information and supporting recommendations on the status of the Afro-Brazilian trans population, the report highlights these individuals’ daily experiences by presenting their own arduous accounts of the struggle for survival and acceptance.

 

Colombia

LGBT rights in Colombia have progressed since consensual homosexual activity was decriminalized in 1980 with amendments to the Criminal Code. Between February 2007 and April 2008 three rulings of the Constitutional Court granted registered same-sex couples the same pension, social security and property rights as for registered heterosexual couples.  On 28 April 2016, the Constitutional Court legalized same-sex marriage.

In August 2014, a student called Sergio Urrego committed suicide because he had suffered discrimination by the authorities of the school where he studied. The mother filed a lawsuit that after several appeals finally reached the Constitutional Court. The Court ruled in favour of Urrego's family, stating that the rights to dignity, education, equality, non-discrimination, the free development of personality, privacy and due process, justice, reparation and good name were violated. The Court also ordered the school to make a public act of forgiveness and ordered the Ministry of Education that within a year it review the "manuals of coexistence" (rules governing relationships between students themselves and others members of the educational community) of all schools in the country so that they do not contain articles that discriminate against children because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. With this decision, colleges across the country cannot discriminate against students because of their sexual orientation.

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: Yes

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: Yes

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

It Gets Better Colombia: https://www.itgetsbettercolombia.org/

Colombia Diversa: http://colombiadiversa.org/

Red Somos: https://www.redsomos.org/

Cámara de Comerciantes LGBT de Colombia: http://web.cclgbt.co/index.html

Liberarte: https://www.liberarte.co/es/


 

El Salvador

Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in El Salvador, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples. A national law does exist to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, but it is rarely enforced. Polls show high levels of prejudice directed at LGBT people, and there are many reports of anti-gay harassment and bias motivated violence. 

A 2010 poll revealed that El Salvador has some of the lowest support for legalizing same-sex marriage in Latin America at 10% : https://www.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/insights/I0844.enrevised.pdf

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: No

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: No

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: No

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

Asociación Entre Amigos: http://asociacionentreamigos.com/

Espacio de Mujeres Lesbianas por la Diversidad – Esmules: https://www.facebook.com/pg/esmules.elsalvador/about/?ref=page_internal

 

Guatemala

Information on the conditions for LGBT people in Guatemala is very scarce. There is no legal recognition for same-sex couples and same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples.

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: No

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: No

Employment protection: No 

Hate crimes law: No

Incitement: No

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

Oasis Guatemala:  https://www.facebook.com/pg/OasisGuatemala/about/?ref=page_internal

PFLAG Guatemala: https://www.facebook.com/pg/PFLAGGuatemala/about/?ref=page_internal


 

 

 

 

 

Honduras

Male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Honduras, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples. Both same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples have been constitutionally banned since 2005. 

Before the November 2017 elections, three candidates from the National Party and the Christian Democratic Party announced their support for same-sex marriage, adding that they would be open to introducing a same-sex marriage bill to the National Congress.

Honduras’ best-known LGBT leader, 27-year-old Walter Trochez, was assassinated by state security forces in December 2009 for having launched a public campaign calling attention to the wave of anti-gay murders, which began following the June 2009 coup d’etat that overthrew the constitutionally-elected left-wing Honduran president, Manuel Zelaya.

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: No

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: No

Other protection: No

LGBT organizations/networks

La Asociación LGTB Arcoíris de Honduras: https://www.facebook.com/pg/lgtp.arcoiris/about/?ref=page_internal

Jovenes Innovadores Honduras: https://www.facebook.com/pg/Jovenes-Innovadores-Honduras-230842623649752/about/?ref=page_internal


 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicaragua

Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Nicaragua, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples. In November 2007, a new Penal Code was drafted and since 1 March 2008, same-sex sexual activity has been legal by a new Penal Code.

During the Sandinista Revolution (1961-1990) many LGBT Nicaraguans held prominent roles. However, LGBT rights were not of any priority to the Sandinista government due to an overwhelming Roman Catholic population. It was also thought to be a huge political risk sure to be met with hostility from the Roman Catholic Church, already with bad relations to the government.

After the United States lifted the economic embargo against Nicaragua, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) promoting LGBT rights began to operate in the country due to the absence of pressure from the United States. As a result, Nicaragua hosted in first public gay pride festival in 1991. The annual Gay Pride celebration in Managua, held around 28 June, in still in motion and is used to commemorate the uprising of the Stonewall riots in New York City.

In November 1992 a coalition known as the Campaign for Sexuality without Prejudices, composed of lawyers, lesbians and gay activists, amongst others, presented an appeal to the Supreme Court of Justice challenging the law as unconstitutional. However, the Supreme Court rejected the appeal in March 1994.

According to Nicaraguan LGBT group Movimiento de la Diversidad Sexual (Movement of Sexual Diversity), there are approximately 600,000 gays living in Nicaragua.

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: No

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: No

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

Mesa Nacional LGBTI Nicaragua: https://www.facebook.com/pg/MesaNacionalLgbt.Nicaragua/about/?ref=page_internal


Peru

LGBT people in Peru may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity among consenting adults are legal. An exception was previously made for all military and police personnel, who could be punished with between 60 days to 20 years imprisonment or discharge from the forces. However, in December 2009, the Supreme Court of Peru ruled that homosexual orientation or engaging in homosexual sex cannot be an impediment to membership of the police forces and the military.

In January 2017, a decree issued by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski prohibiting all forms of discrimination and hate crimes on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity took effect, though this order was repealed by the Peruvian Congress in May 2017. In a landmark ruling published on 9 January 2017, the 7th Constitutional Court of Lima ruled in favor of recognizing and registering a same-sex marriage, between a Peruvian citizen and a Mexican citizen, performed in Mexico City in 2010. The National Registry of Identification and Civil Status has stated it will appeal the court ruling.

Homosexuality can also be used as grounds for separation or divorce. Laws meant to protect "public morals" are often used against lesbians and gays. Society's attitude towards homosexuals is generally hostile and is heavily influenced by the Catholic Church. In the 1980s the founding of the organisation Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (MHOL) managed to bring about at least a slight change in the way the media treated homosexuality. Known LGBT persons may face persecution by the public. During the first Lima pride parade in 2002, most demonstrators wore masks to avoid persecution by the public.

Legislation

Male to male relationships: Legal

Punishments for male to male relationships: No law

Female to female relationships: Legal

Age of consent: Equal for heterosexuals and homosexuals

Same sex marriage or civil union: No

Discrimination protection

NRHI inclusive of sexual orientation: Yes

Constitution protection: Yes

Employment protection: Yes

Hate crimes law: Yes

Incitement: Yes

Other protection: Yes

LGBT organizations/networks

It Gets Better Perú: http://www.itgetsbetterperu.org/

Movimiento Homosexual de Lima: http://orgs.tigweb.org/movimiento-homosexual-de-lima-mhol

LGBTnet is developed by LGBT Denmark and The Danish Family Planning Association, Danish Refugee Council & Sabaah • Contact:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.