Human Rights

No international treaty or convention refers directly to discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.


It has often been argued that an actual UN convention on sexual and gender rights could be an appropriate and effective means of advancing the rights of sexual and gender minorities. However, freedom from discrimination is set out as a fundamental human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other widely adhered to international human rights treaties.


They also prohibit discrimination on grounds of sex, and discrimination on the basis of sexual preference is actually included in the prohibition against sex discrimination in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, declared the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1993.


World Health Organization (WHO) Working Definition of Sexual Rights

According to the WHO, sexual rights embrace human rights that are already recognized in national laws, international human rights documents and other consensus statements. They include the right of all persons, free of coercion, discrimination and violence, to:


(WHO 2004)